All about varicose veins in the legs

Problems with the cardiovascular system have serious consequences for the human body. In the high-risk group are the vessels of the lower extremities. Feet are constantly exposed to adverse factors, ranging from gravity to improperly fitted shoes. The consequence of this is varicose veins in the legs, the treatment of which most often ends with surgery.

Features and causes of the development of the disease

Varicose veins of the lower extremities are formed due to valvular insufficiency. It can be congenital or acquired. When the valves are not working properly, the body tries to increase the pressure in the limbs so that the blood is pushed upward. Because of this, the veins in the legs become stretched, their elasticity decreases, and they lose their shape. Therefore, a vascular pattern is formed on the surface of the skin. This is the first sign indicating that a person has started varicose veins of the lower extremities.


VBNK without treatment leads to a huge number of complications, the most serious of which can be heart thrombosis and death. Approximately 60% of cases of varicose veins of the legs lead to disability. Therefore, it is impossible to let the disease take its course. Having noticed his first symptoms, you should immediately contact a phlebologist. The causes of varicose veins on the legs are varied. Its development can provoke:

  • increase in the level of progesterone in the female body;
  • congenital problems with valves and blood vessels;
  • leg injuries;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • excessive physical activity;
  • smoking;
  • chronic joint diseases;
  • wearing crushing shoes and clothing;
  • overweight;
  • long-term use of COCs;
  • problems with the endocrine system;
  • neoplasm frolicking in the lower extremities or peritoneum;
  • general increase in pressure;
  • too much fat consumed;
  • thrombosis, accompanied by inflammatory processes in the walls of the vein.

As you can see, relatively harmless habits can become the causes of varicose veins on the legs. Veins in the legs often lose their elasticity during pregnancy. This happens for two reasons. Firstly, women no longer control their weight, which provokes the growth of adipose tissue and an increase in pressure on the vessels. Secondly, sudden surges in hormones lead to a change in the density of the vein walls. In 45% of cases, varicose veins of the lower extremities in pregnant women go away after childbirth on their own. The rest of the fairer sex will need to undergo treatment if the sores on the legs have not healed in the first 3 months.

In men, varicose veins of the lower extremities develops under the influence of hard physical labor. Therefore, the risk group includes people who spend more than 80% of the working day on their feet, i. e. builders, cooks, etc. Regardless of gender, varicose veins of the legs can develop in professional athletes. During training, the pressure in the lower body increases many times over, so you need to wear specialized underwear to create compression.

Excess weight

Symptom Complex

The symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities are the same for both sexes. At the first stages, the disease is practically not noticeable. Some patients may notice a protruding vessel in themselves, someone notes a constant heaviness in the legs. The disease does not manifest itself until it has spread strongly enough. Then the patient develops the following signs of varicose veins:

  • pain while walking;
  • dull pain during rest (disappears if you put your feet on a hill);
  • discoloration of the skin of the legs associated with the fact that the vessels begin to protrude upon palpation and bulge;
  • convulsions;
  • feeling of heaviness in the limbs in the afternoon;
  • changes in the structure of blood vessels, thickening.

Before treating an ailment, a doctor must determine what triggered it. Patients who have suffered from severe physical stress or improper lifestyle will be able to completely remove varicose veins on the feet and legs. Another thing is people with a genetic predisposition to this disease. After the doctor begins to treat varicose veins, the manifestations of the disease will go away. But after a while, such patients may again have relapses, therefore, it is necessary to treat varicose veins in the legs after determining the factor that provoked its development.

Distinctive features of deep vein varicose veins

Deep vessels are also susceptible to this venous disease. The first sign of their defeat is a feeling of heaviness in the calves. They are literally bursting with being in a sitting position. Calves return to their normal size after sleep or prolonged rest in a supine position. The symptoms of deep vein varicose veins are somewhat different from the milder form of the disease. The patient is observed:

  • severe pain in the calf muscles;
  • dryness and discoloration of certain segments of the skin;
  • varicose veins on the legs have the shape of grape bunches and are visible to the naked eye;
  • stars appear on the lower limbs;
  • small and long non-healing wounds appear;
  • there is a burning sensation.
Distinctive features of deep vein varicose veins

Internal varicose veins on the legs is dangerous because it affects the structure of the muscle structure. They become deformed and cease to fulfill their functions. The bones of the lower extremities are also negatively affected. Trophic and difficult to heal ulcers appear on the skin. Some begin to smear them with various wound-healing balms, which cannot be done with varicose veins. As a rule, ointments contain hormones that accelerate regeneration in healthy people. But for those who have symptoms of internal varicose veins, they will only harm. The inflammatory process will begin to intensify, which can lead to the development of gangrene, and in advanced cases, cause sepsis and death. It is most dangerous when a blood clot forms. It can come off and lead to cardiac arrest.

Disease stages

Different medical schools distinguish a different number of stages in the development of lower limb vein disease. But if you summarize all the information, then there are 4 of them:

  • Zero. Puffiness develops, the veins in the legs swell slightly, the pain is more aching than sharp. The patient needs preventive massage, stabilization of the work and rest regimen, moderate physical activity. Firming balms and creams have a good effect.
  • First. The first spider veins and nodes appear. It is necessary to start treatment of varicose veins of the legs in a hospital using special devices. Also at this stage, the first cramps and burning sensation appear.
  • Second. The lower limbs begin to swell very much. The vessels on the legs hurt, the number of stars increases. It is getting harder and harder for patients to endure pain. Ointments and other means of cooling and constricting the vessels of the legs stop helping.
  • Third. The skin becomes very dry, cracks appear. Pigmentation changes. In the lower part of the legs, the skin becomes very dark, while the vascular pattern is clearly visible at the top. If a patient has deep vein varicose veins, ulcers are formed. The pain becomes unbearable, there is a feeling of numbness in the legs.
Disease stages

Ideally, varicose veins in the legs should be treated by a phlebologist from the first stage. But people confuse them with the usual overwork, do not pay attention to such noticeable symptoms. Subsequent after the third stage of varicose veins lead to loss of limbs and general damage to the body. It will be difficult for both the patient and the doctor to treat varicose veins on the legs in a neglected form.

Diagnostic Features

Can varicose veins be treated? Yes, but for this you need to go through a full diagnosisVaricose veins of the lower extremities in the last stages are determined by a simple visual examination. The veins in the legs will be swollen and well visible. But here post-thrombotic disease of the veins of the lower extremities and a genetic predisposition to varicose veins of the lower extremities are not detected by a simple examination.

The problem is also that patients do not know how their legs hurt with varicose veins, so they can attribute the symptoms to other diseases. To accurately identify vascular disease of the lower extremities, you will need to undergo a number of diagnostic procedures:

  • sample Delba;
  • flowmetry to determine the speed of filling the veins and blood flow;
  • phlebography;
  • vein scan;
  • thermography;
  • phlebomanometry, necessary to determine the pressure inside the vein;
  • phleboscintigraphy to study the condition of veins and lymph nodes.

Patients who have found symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities are carried out from this list only 2-3 studies. The methods are determined after analyzing the patient's condition. Treatment of varicose veins on the legs begins only after receiving the results of all examinations. Without data collection, it will not be possible to organize the right therapy. Therefore, in addition to information about the patient, the phlebologist has to analyze information about relatives, becauseproblems with blood vessels in 70% of cases occur on a genetic basis.


Methods for treating the disease

Both deep vein varicose veins, and the initial stage of lower limb vascular lesions, and varicose veins under the knee are treated in about the same way. Many patients think about how to remove varicose veins on the legs when it reaches the last stage. Then the doctor has no choice but to treat varicose veins through surgery. But this method is used when the disease has almost reached its peak and began to pose a direct threat to the patient's life. In other cases, a milder therapy is used to remove the protruding vessel. The following methods of treating varicose veins are distinguished:

  • outside;
  • medicated;
  • surgical.

Each method allows both to treat varicose veins of the legs, and to stabilize the patient's condition. Convulsions with varicose veins and other manifestations of the disease should go away after starting one of the types of therapy. If the state of the vessels of the lower extremities remains the same, then the method of therapy must be changed.

External therapy

Many patients do not understand why the legs hurt with varicose veins and how to deal with varicose veins on the legs, if it has already appeared. It all depends on the degree of varicose veins and on how carefully the patient follows the recommendations made by the doctor. Varicose veins in the legs are treated with the use of ointments. It should be said right away that if you thought about how to get rid of varicose veins permanently with the help of creams, then you will be disappointed.

Ointments and gels don't even reach the perforating veins. They just slightly irritate blood vessels, which relieves inflammation and prevents blood stagnation. When a patient has varicose veins of the lower extremities, he is treated with hormonal drugs that have an anti-inflammatory effect on the walls of the vessels of the lower extremities. Hydrotherapy will help get rid of varicose veins on the legs. The patient can spend it at home or in a sanatorium.

Stockings, compression underwear, special socks help to reduce pain in the legs with varicose veins. At the same time, the protruding vessel cannot be completely cured with their help. Venous blood will press on him, provoking further spread of varicose veins in the legs. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to contact a massage therapist.

Drug therapy

Taking medication is another way to demonstrate how you can deal with varicose veins on your legs. Medicines are prescribed in the form of capsules, tablets, injections. The most common in the treatment of varicose veins are the following types of drugs:

  • Blood thinners. They are needed to stop blood clots from forming.
  • Anti-inflammatory. Essential to reduce swelling and pain.
  • Phlebotonics. They are needed in order to improve vascular tone and accelerate blood flow.

If you have varicose veins, what you should not do is to panic and try to find medicines on your own. It will not help to stop varicose veins, but it will greatly harm the liver and kidneys. The affected vein in the leg is not suitable for injections. As a last resort, you can use the shoulder, but it is better to inject into the buttocks.

Surgical method

There are 3 surgical methods that allow both to get rid of varicose veins and prevent its recurrence. The first is remembered when asked about how to cure varicose veins with the least trauma. This is laser treatment. The beam of directional radiation activates a thermal reaction with hemoglobin, which leads to the closure of the damaged vessel. The procedure is suitable for overly sensitive patients with a low pain threshold.

If you are looking for a way to stop the spread of the disease, but do not want to invest a lot of money in the process, then you can resort to surgical intervention. It will leave slight scars on the surface of the legs. During the operation, doctors will simply remove the damaged vessels. The third way is to inject blocking drugs directly into the vein. It does little to injure the skin, and after the injection of the solution, patients can immediately go home. Its only drawback is that it does not suit everyone. Allergy sufferers and patients with sensitive immune systems will not be able to use blocking drugs.