Varicose veins on the legs

Recently, people over the age of 30 are faced with pathology - varicose veins. The disease is hereditary, it is a consequence of the abuse of bad habits. Varicose veins of the lower extremities - deformation of the walls of blood vessels that move blood to the heart, the formation of nodes. The disease leads to complications associated with the formation of blood clots, the risk of their separation. The latter stages can be fatal. When the first symptoms appear, it is recommended to consult a doctor. He will prescribe the treatment that is specific to your diagnosis.

Varicose veins of the lower extremities - development mechanism

Pathological changes in the veins of the legs develop under the influence of factors that have an internal and external manifestation.

The main reasons for the formation of pathological changes:

  • Genetic predisposition. Scientists have proven that one of the fundamental factors in the development of varicose veins is heredity. If your mother or grandmother had an ailment, you are at risk of people predisposed to pathological processes.
  • Congenital vascular valve insufficiency. Pathological abnormalities are associated with congenital weakness of the connective tissue. Formed walls, structures, have a low strength and elasticity.
  • Low vascular elasticity
  • The period of gestation. One of the reasons for the development of the disease is pregnancy. Hormonal changes in a woman's body lead to the fact that they suffer from pathology 50% more than men. During pregnancy, blood flow to the lower pelvic organs increases, and the pressure on the lower body increases. As a result, the venous walls swell under the onslaught of the blood flow.
  • The specifics of the workflow. Varicose veins of the lower extremities is formed in people with professions associated with staying for a long time in a standing position. Pathology develops in teachers, hairdressers, dentists. People associated with mobility are not at risk.
  • Overweight. With the appearance of excess weight, the load on the lower body increases.
  • Insufficient nutrition, lack of fruits and raw vegetables in the diet.
  • Presence of oncological diseases.
  • Constant stressful situations. The venous walls contain nerve endings that increase tone. With constant nervous overvoltage, the walls become less elastic.
  • Bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking). Harmful substances, toxins, have a destructive effect on the vascular walls.
  • Sports overload, carrying weights.
  • Shoes with high heels, tight clothes, contribute to the compression of blood vessels, impaired blood flow.

The listed factors contribute to the disruption of the integrity of the venous walls. Under the pressure of the bloodstream, they are forced to deform. The blood flow is from the bottom up. From the lower limbs to the heart. There are valves in the veins that prevent the flow back.

In case of violation of the main function of the valves, the vessels are deformed, thinned, lengthened under the pressure of the blood flow, which becomes chaotic. Nodes are formed - varix, which are visible through the skin, like blue stars.

Varicose veins in the legs, risk factors

In the initial stages of the disease, weakness and fatigue in the legs are felt. Over time, during the development of the disease, the patient feels pain. The nature of the pain is pulling. It gets worse at night, at the end of the working day; weak in the morning, after sleep. These are the first symptoms of pathological changes in the vessels. If you do not start treatment on time, complications are possible.


Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities provoke:

  • Thrombophlebitis. It manifests itself as inflammation of the vascular walls, leads to high temperature, blockage of the lumen of blood vessels;
  • Trophic ulcer. Violation of the integrity of blood vessels, formed at the slightest injury. Pathology is dangerous, it is a hotbed of bacteria. The place of localization is the lower part of the lower leg, foot. Heals hard. The skin becomes vulnerable to environmental influences. The main danger is tissue necrosis;
  • Phlebothrombosis. Violation of blood flow, through the formation of blood clots that attach to the venous walls, reducing the lumen of the bed;
  • Thrombosis. Blood clots as a result of blood clots. Can provoke death when a blood clot breaks off, is transferred to the pulmonary artery;
  • Bleeding knots;
  • Thrombophlebitis. Inflammation of the vessel walls caused by the formation of blood clots. It is accompanied by increased body temperature.

Varicose veins in the legs can be fatal. When a blood clot is torn off, the lumen of a vital artery that supplies the heart and lungs is blocked, it causes oxygen starvation, a lack of nutrients. It also spreads to the brain.

Leg varicose veins classification

Depending on the severity of the symptoms of pathology, there are six stages of the development of the disease. The modern classification includes the following stages:

  1. Zero. It is characterized by the presence of a feeling of heaviness in the evening in the lower extremities. There is no clinical manifestation.
  2. First. It manifests itself in the form of subcutaneous telangiectasias, small spider veins. Feels like cramps at night.
  3. Second. Consists of the above symptoms plus visible areas of subcutaneous vasodilation.
  4. Third. It is accompanied by the presence of ankle edema. The next morning after sleep they do not go away, remain for the whole day. Throughout the day, there is a pulling pain in the area of ​​the veins.
  5. Fourth. Expressed by the presence of dryness of the skin. The varix bulges outward. Brown spots are noticeable - skin pigmentation in the area of ​​rupture of the vascular walls.
  6. Fifth. Formation of the trophic disturbance stage. The skin becomes vulnerable. Blood flow is impaired, the risk of blood clots increases.
  7. Sixth. A trophic ulcer is formed. The skin is broken, blood clots are formed, accompanied by inflammation of the venous walls. The risk of clot separation increases.
Varicose veins of the legs classification

Varicose veins are an independent disease. It does not go away by itself. When the first symptoms are found, it is recommended to start therapy, remember, it is easier to treat the ailment at the initial stage of development.

The clinical picture of the manifestation of pathology is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • The appearance of pain in the lower extremities, a feeling of heaviness, warmth along the direction of the vessel.
  • Feeling of heaviness in the legs towards the end of the day.
  • After a long stay on the legs, swelling forms.
  • Convulsions are felt at night.
  • The walls of the veins expand, show through the skin.
  • The skin of the lower leg becomes brown, open wounds (trophic ulcers) are formed.
  • On palpation, the affected veins are palpable, seem tortuous. In a horizontal position, the venous mesh disappears and appears in the standing position.
  • Constant heaviness, burning sensation is felt in the lower limbs. In the initial stages, it passes in the morning, after rest. With the development of the disease, edema is added.
  • Increased body temperature, feeling of weakness.
  • Compaction, formation of cones in the area of ​​vascular clusters.
  • Bloody discharge from trophic ulcers.
  • Disruption of skin nutrition.
  • Painful blood clots.

If the above symptoms appear, it is recommended to see a doctor.

Varicose veins - diagnosis

The doctor prescribes a diagnostic method based on the clinical picture of the course of the disease. The main method for determining the state of blood vessels is duplex sonography. The procedure takes 25 minutes. Gives an idea of ​​the condition of deep and superficial veins. It is prescribed for prevention and in order to determine the method of therapy.

Ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities

If necessary, the diagnostics are supplemented:

  1. Computed tomographic phlebography. The basis of the method is the introduction of a contrast agent into the vessels, which contributes to the manifestation of a clear picture of the state of the veins on the monitor screen. It is prescribed for an uncertain clinical picture of varicose veins.
  2. Magnetic resonance venography. The principle of determining the diagnosis is based on the use of a tomograph. Does not provide for the introduction of a contrast agent. Displays the examination result on the monitor. Allows you to get a clear picture of the state of blood vessels, determines the location of the presence of blood clots.
  3. Segmental Doppler. Determines the patency, the possibility of narrowing of the arteries. Gives results within five minutes.

Varicose veins of the lower extremities therapy

After determining the state of the vessels, making a diagnosis, the doctor prescribes therapy. Depends on the stage of development of the pathology. Allocated by:

  1. Conservative therapy. Based on the use of blood thinning drugs, venotonics, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy exercises.
  2. Sclerotherapy. The method is based on the introduction of a drug into the affected vein. The blood flow passes through healthy veins, bypassing the glued ones.
  3. Compression jersey. It is prescribed for treatment, in combination with other methods of therapy.
  4. Surgical intervention - excision of the affected vein.
  5. Laser coagulation. Laser treatment.

The method of therapy depends on the stage of development of the disease.

Leg vein dilation, prevention

According to the conclusions of phlebologists, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure. The main methods of preventing varicose veins:

  • proper nutrition;
  • quitting bad habits;
  • use of physical activity (visit to the fitness center);
  • walks in the fresh air;
  • contrast shower;
  • drinking at least two liters of fluid a day;
  • orthopedic chair for sedentary work;
  • comfortable clothes and shoes.

By following the simplest rules, you can prevent the development of the disease.